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vonHoldt et al 2011

1.    vonHoldt, B.M., J.P. Pollinger, D.A. Earl, J.C. Knowles, A.R. Boyko, H. Parker, E. Geffen, M. Pilot, W. Jedrzejewski, B. Jedrzejewska, V. Sidorovich, C. Greco, E. Randi, M. Musiani, R. Kays, C.D. Bustamante, E.A. Ostrander, J. Novembre, and R.K. Wayne  2011. A genome-wide perspective on the evolutionary history of enigmatic wolf-like canids. Genome Research, doi:10.1101/gr.116301.110.

High-throughput genotyping technologies developed for model species can potentially increase the resolution of demographic
history and ancestry in wild relatives. We use a SNP genotyping microarray developed for the domestic dog to
assay variation in over 48K loci in wolf-like species worldwide. Despite the high mobility of these large carnivores, we find
distinct hierarchical population units within gray wolves and coyotes that correspond with geographic and ecologic
differences among populations. Further, we test controversial theories about the ancestry of the Great Lakes wolf and red
wolf using an analysis of haplotype blocks across all 38 canid autosomes. We find that these enigmatic canids are highly
admixed varieties derived from gray wolves and coyotes, respectively. This divergent genomic history suggests that they
do not have a shared recent ancestry as proposed by previous researchers. Interspecific hybridization, as well as the
process of evolutionary divergence, may be responsible for the observed phenotypic distinction of both forms. Such
admixture complicates decisions regarding endangered species restoration and protection.